Jeep is an automobile marque (and registered trademark) of Chrysler. It is the oldest Sports utility vehicle (SUV) brand. Land Rover is the second oldest. The word "jeep" is often used as a generic term, uncapitalized, for any vehicle of this shape and function.
- 1 History
- 2 Jeep model list
- 3 Jeeps around the world
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- 7 Credits
It was use by the United States military during World War I that brought the Jeep to the world's notice. Subsequently, its off-road ability and its rugged but light characteristics have helped to open up inaccessible places, facilitating transport and communication in some of the most isolated locations in the world. It has often been the first type of vehicle to penetrate some terrains, where it provides an essential life-line for those who live there. A house-hold name across the globe, the Jeep is an example of a technology that can be put to good use, or to less ideal uses, according to the circumstances. In one location, it carried troops, in another emergency supplies. Here, it transports narcotics, there it carries medicine. However, it has perhaps been as widely used by humanitarian agencies to reach disaster zones as it has been by the military in the prosecution of armed conflict.
The origin of the term "jeep"
There are many stories about where the word "jeep" came from. Although they make for interesting and memorable tales, they are difficult to verify.
Probably the most popular notion has it that the vehicle bore the designation "GP" (for "General Purpose"), which was phonetically slurred into the word jeep. R. Lee Ermey, on his television series Mail Call, disputes this, saying that the vehicle was designed for specific duties, was never referred to as "General Purpose," and that the name may have been derived from Ford's nomenclature referring to the vehicle as GP (G for government-use, and P to designate its 80-inch wheelbase). "General purpose" does appear in connection with the vehicle in the WW2 TM 9-803 manual, which describes the vehicle as "… a general purpose, personnel, or cargo carrier especially adaptable for reconnaissance or command, and designated as ?-ton 4x4 Truck," and the vehicle is designated a "GP" in TM 9-2800, Standard Military Motor Vehicles, September 1, 1943, but whether the average jeep-driving GI would have been familiar with either of these manuals is open to debate.
This version of the story may be confused with the nickname of another series of vehicles with the GP designation. The Electro-Motive Division of General Motors, a maker of railroad locomotives, introduced its "General Purpose" line in 1949, using the GP tag. These locomotives are commonly referred to as Geeps, pronounced the same way as "Jeep."
Many, including Ermey, claim that the likelier origin refers to the character Eugene the Jeep in the Thimble Theater (Popeye) comic strip. Eugene the Jeep was dog-like and could walk through walls and ceilings, climb trees, fly, and just about go anywhere it wanted; it is thought that soldiers at the time were so impressed with the new vehicle's versatility that they informally named it after the character. The character "Eugene the Jeep" was created in 1936.
The term "jeep" was first commonly used during World War I (1914–1918) by soldiers as a slang word for new recruits and for new unproven vehicles. This is according to a history of the vehicle for an issue of the U.S. Army magazine, Quartermaster Review, which was written by Maj. E.P. Hogan. He went on to say that the slang word "jeep" had these definitions as late as the start of World War II.
"Jeep" had been used as the name of a small tractor made by Modine.
The term "jeep" would eventually be used as slang to refer to an airplane, a tractor used for hauling heavy equipment, and an autogyro. When the first models of the jeep came to Camp Holabird for tests, the vehicle did not have a name yet. Therefore the soldiers on the test project called it a jeep. Civilian engineers and test drivers who were at the camp during this time were not aware of the military slang term. They most likely were familiar with the character Eugene the Jeep and thought that Eugene was the origin of the name. The vehicle had many other nicknames at this time, such as Peep and Pygmy and Blitz-Buggy, although because of the Eugene association, Jeep stuck in people's minds better than any other term.
Words of the Fighting Forces, a dictionary of military slang, published in 1942, in the library at The Pentagon gives this definition:
- Jeep: A four-wheel drive car of one-half to one-and-one-half ton capacity for reconnaissance or other army duty. A term applied to the bantam-cars, and occasionally to other motor vehicles (U.S.A.) in the Air Corps, the Link Trainer; in the armored forces, the ? ton command car. Also referred to as "any small plane, helicopter, or gadget."
Early in 1941, Willys-Overland demonstrated the vehicle's ability by having it drive up the U.S. Capitol steps, driven by Willy's test driver, Irving "Red" Haussman, who had recently heard soldiers at Fort Holabird calling it a "jeep." When asked by syndicated columnist Katherine Hillyer for the Washington Daily News (or by a bystander, according to another account) what it was called, Irving answered, "It's a jeep."
Katherine Hillyer's article was published on February 20, 1941, around the nation and included a picture of the vehicle with the caption:
- LAWMAKERS TAKE A RIDE—With Senator Meade, of New York, at the wheel, and Representative Thomas, of New Jersey, sitting beside him, one of the Army's new scout cars, known as "jeeps" or "quads," climbs up the Capitol steps in a demonstration yesterday. Soldiers in the rear seat for gunners were unperturbed.
This exposure caused all other jeep references to fade, leaving the 4x4 truck with the name.
Willys-Overland Inc. was later awarded the sole privilege of owning the name "Jeep" as registered trademark, by extension, merely because it originally had offered the most powerful engine.
The origins of the vehicle: The first jeeps
The first jeep prototype (the Bantam BRC) was built for the Department of the Army by American Bantam in Butler, Pennsylvania, followed by two other competing prototypes produced by Ford and Willys-Overland. Design was said to have been inspired by the Spartan Army uniform. The American Bantam Car Company actually built and designed the vehicle that first met the Army's criteria, but its engine did not meet the Army's torque requirements. Plus, the Army felt that the company was too small to supply the number needed and it allowed Willys and Ford to make second attempts on their designs after seeing Bantam's vehicle in action. Some people argue that Ford and Willys also had access to Bantam's technical paperwork.
Quantities (1,500) of each of the three models were then extensively field tested. During the bidding process for 16,000 "jeeps," Willys-Overland offered the lowest bid and won the initial contract. Willys thus designed what would become the standardized jeep, designating it a model MB military vehicle and building it at their plant in Toledo, Ohio.
Like American Bantam, Willys-Overland was a small company and, likewise, the military was concerned about their ability to produce large quantities of jeeps. The military was also concerned that Willys-Overland had only one manufacturing facility: Something that would make the supply of jeeps more susceptible to sabotage or production stoppages.
Based on these two concerns, the U.S. government required that jeeps also be built by the Ford Motor Company, who designated the vehicle as model GPW (G = governmental vehicle, P showed the wheelbase, and W = the Willys design). Willys and Ford, under the direction of Charles E. Sorensen (Vice-President of Ford during World War II), produced more than 600,000 jeeps.
Besides just being a "truck" the jeep was a vastly multi-purpose vehicle.
The jeep was widely copied around the world, including in France by Hotchkiss et Cie (after 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under license from Willys), and by Nekaf in the Netherlands. There were several versions created, including a railway jeep and an amphibious jeep. As part of the war effort, Jeeps were also supplied to the Soviet Red Army during World War II.
In the United States military, the jeep has been supplanted by a number of vehicles (for example, Ford's M151 MUTT) of which the latest is the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV or "Humvee").
In 1965, Jeep developed the M715 1 1/4 army truck, which served extensively in Vietnam. Today it serves other countries, and is being produced by Kia under license.
The Jeep marque
The marque has gone through many owners, starting in 1941, with Willys, which produced the first Civilian Jeep (CJ). Willys was sold to Kaiser in 1953, which became Kaiser-Jeep in 1963. American Motors (AMC) purchased Kaiser’s money-losing Jeep operations in 1970. The utility vehicles complemented AMC’s passenger car business by sharing components, achieving volume efficiencies, as well as capitalizing on Jeep’s international and government markets.
The French automaker Renault began investing in AMC in 1979. However, by 1987, the automobile markets had changed and even Renault itself was experiencing financial troubles. At the same time, Chrysler Corporation wanted to capture the Jeep brand, as well as other assets of AMC. Chrysler bought out AMC in 1987, shortly after the Jeep CJ was replaced with the AMC-designed Jeep Wrangler, or YJ. Chrysler merged with Daimler-Benz in 1998 to form DaimlerChrysler. DaimlerChrysler eventually sold most of their interest in Chrysler to a private equity company in 2007. Chrysler and the Jeep division now operate under the name Chrysler Holding LLC.
Toledo, Ohio, has been the headquarters of the Jeep marque since its inception, and the city has always been proud of this heritage. Although no longer produced in the same factory as the World War II originals, two streets in the vicinity of the old plant are named Willys Parkway and Jeep Parkway.
American Motors set up the first automobile-manufacturing joint venture in the People's Republic of China on January 15, 1984. The result was Beijing Jeep Corporation, Ltd., in partnership with Beijing Automobile Industry Corporation, to produce the Jeep Cherokee (XJ) in Beijing. Manufacture continued after Chrysler's buyout of AMC. This joint venture is now part of DaimlerChrysler and DaimlerChrysler China Invest Corporation. The current model is the Jeep 2500, an updated XJ Cherokee.
Jeep vehicles have "model designations" in addition to their common names. Nearly every civilian Jeep until the mid-2000s has an "xJ" designation, though not all are as well-known as the classic CJ. Chrysler has now changed to an "xK" designation.
A division of Chrysler Holdings, the most recent successor company to Willys, now holds trademark status on the word "Jeep" and the distinctive 7-slot front grille design. The original 9-slot grille associated with all WW2 jeeps was designed by Ford for their GPW, and because it weighed less than the original "Slat Grille" of Willys, (an arrangement of flat bars) was incorporated into the "Standardized jeep" design.
The history of the Humvee has ties with Jeep. In 1971, Jeep's Defense and Government Products Division was turned into AM General, a wholly-owned subsidiary of American Motors Corporation, which also owned Jeep. In 1979, while still owned by American Motors, AM General began the first steps toward designing the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle. AM General also continued manufacturing the DJ, which Jeep created in 1953.
Jeep model list
Historical Jeep models:
- 1940 Bantam Pilot—Prototype
- 1940 Bantam BRC-60—Prototype
- 1940 Willys Quad—Prototype
- 1940 Ford Pygmy—Prototype
- 1940 Budd Ford—Prototype
- 1941 Ford GP
- 1941 Willys MA
- 1941 Bantam BRC-40
- 1942 Willys MB (slat grille)
- 1942-1945 Willys MB (stamped grille)
- 1942-1945 Ford GPW
- 1942-1943 Ford GPA
- 1944 Willys MLW-1—Prototype (Never Finished)
- 1944 Willys MLW-2—Prototype
- 1944 Agrijeep CJ-1
- 1944-1945 CJ-2
- 1945-1949 CJ-2A
- 1946-1965 Willys Jeep Wagon
- 1947-1965 Willys Jeep Truck
- 1948-1950 VJ—Willys Jeepster
- 1949-1953 CJ-3A
- 1950 CJ-V35
- 1950-1955 M-38 (MC)
- 1950 X-98—Prototype
- 1950 CJ-4—Prototype
- 1950 CJ-4M—Prototype
- 1950 CJ-4MA—Prototypes
- 1952-1957 M38A1 (MD)
- 1952-1957 M38A1C
- 1953-1963 M170
- 1953-1968 CJ-3B
- 1953 B.C.E. Bobcat—Prototype
- 1954-1983 CJ-5
- 1961-1963 Tuxedo Park Mark III
- 1969 Camper
- 1969 462
- 1970 Renegade I
- 1971 Renegade II
- 1972-1983 Renegade Models
- 1973 Super Jeep
- 1977-1983 Golden Eagle
- 1977 Golden Eagle California Edition—limited production that were only available through California AMC Dealerships
- 1979 Silver Anniversary CJ-5 Limited Edition—estimated that perhaps only 1,000 were ever built
- 1955 USAF DJ
- 1955 M38A1D
- 1955-1975 CJ-6
- 1955-1964 DJ-3A
- Surrey Gala Package
- 1955-1968 CJ-3B Long—Spain
- 1956-1965 Jeep Forward Control
- FC-160—Spain, India
- 1959-1978 M151 MUTT
- M718 Ambulance
- M718A1 Ambulance
- 1960-1968 Jeep M606
- 1960-1977 Jeep Rural—Brazil
- 1961-1975 Fleetvan
- 1963-1983 SJ Wagoneer
- 1963-1986 J-Series
- Jeep Gladiator
- Jeep Honcho
- 1964-1967 CJ-5A/CJ-6A Tuxedo Park
- 1965-1975 DJ-5
- 1965-1973 DJ-6
- 1966-1969 SJ Super Wagoneer
- 1966-1971 C101—Jeepster Commando
- 1972-1973 C104—Jeep Commando
- 1974-1983 SJ Cherokee
- 1967-1975 DJ-5A
- 1970-1972 DJ-5B
- 1973-1974 DJ-5C
- 1975-1976 DJ-5D
- 1976 DJ- 5E Electruck
- 1976-1986 CJ-7
- 1982—Jamboree Limited Edition (2500 examples)
- 1977-1978 DJ-5F
- 1979 DJ-5G
- 1979—CJ-5 Silver Anniversary Limited Edition—estimated that perhaps only 1000 were built)
- 1981-1985 CJ-8 Scrambler
- 1981-1985 CJ-10
- 1982 DJ- 5L
- 1984-1991 SJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
- 1991 Final Edition
- 1984-2001 XJ Cherokee
- 1984-2001—Base "SE"
- 1984-1990 XJ Wagoneer
- 1986-1992 MJ Comanche
- 1987-1992—Base SE
- 1987-1995 Wrangler YJ
- 1991-1993 Renegade
- 1988-1995 Wrangler Long—Venezuela
- 1993-1998 ZJ Grand Cherokee
- 1993–1995—Base SE
- 1995–1997—Orvis "Limited Edition"
- 1998—5.9 Limited
- 1993 ZJ Jeep Grand Wagoneer
- 1997-2006 Wrangler TJ
- 2002 TJ Long
- 2003 TJ Rubicon
- 2004 TJ Unlimited
- 2004—Columbia Edition
- 1999-2004 WJ Grand Cherokee
- 2002–2004—Special edition
- 2004—Columbia Edition
The Jeep brand currently produces five models, but 8 vehicles are under the brand name or use the Jeep logo:
- Jeep Renegade BU: Subcompact Sport Utility Vehicle
- Jeep Wrangler
- JK: Standard wheelbase Compact Sport utility vehicle, 2-door version
- JK Unlimited: Long wheelbase Mid-Size sport utility vehicle, 4-door version
- J8: Mid-Size military sport utility vehicle; Produced by AIL, AAV, and AEV.
- TJL: Compact pickup truck, 2-door version; Produced by AAV.
- JL: Short (2-door) and long (4-door) wheelbase SUV; in production since November 2017
- Jeep Grand Cherokee: Mid-size sport utility vehicle
- Jeep Compass: Compact sport utility vehicle
- Jeep Cherokee KL: Mid-size sport utility vehicle
- Jeep Gladiator (JT): mid-size pickup truck, expected to go on sale in early 2019 as a 2020 model.
- Jeep Wagoneer / Grand Wagoneer: Full-Size SUVs expected for 2021
- 1958 DJ-3A Pickup
- 1970 XJ001
- 1970 XJ002
- 1971 Jeep Cowboy
- 1977 Jeep II
- 1986 Cherokee Targa
- 1987 Comanche Thunderchief
- 1989 Jeep Rubicon Wrangler
- 1990 Jeep JJ
- 1990 Jeep Freedom
- 1991 Jeep Wagoneer 2000
- 1992 Jeep Concept 1
- 1993 Jeep Ecco
- 1997 Jeep Cherokee Casablanca
- 1997 Jeep Wrangler Ultimate Rescue
- 1997 Fender Jeep Wrangler
- 1997 Jeep Dakar
- 1997 Jeep Icon
- 1999 Jeep Journey
- 1999 Jeep Jeepster Concept
- 2000 Jeep Cherokee Total Exposure
- 2000 Jeep Varsity
- 2000 Jeep Commander Concept
- 2000 Jeep Willys
- 2001 Jeep Willys 2
- 2002 Jeep Wrangler Tabasco
- 2002 Jeep Wrangler Patriot
- 2002 Jeep Wrangler Mountain Biker
- 2004 Jeep Treo
- 2004 Jeep Rescue
- 2004 Jeep Liberator CRD
- 2005 Jeep Hurricane
- 2005 Jeep Gladiator Concept
- 2005 Jeep Aggressor (the Rezo)
- 2007 Jeep Trailhawk
- 1958 Oscar-Mayer Wienermobile
Jeeps around the world
Jeeps have been built and/or assembled around the world by various companies.
- Argentina—IKA Jeeps 1956-current; now owned by Daimler-Chrysler
- Australia—Willys Motors Australia 1940s-1980s
- Brazil—Willys Overland do Brasil, purchased by Ford 1957-1985
- Canada—Kaiser Jeep 1959-1969
- Columbia—Willys Columbia
- France—Hotchkiss and Auverland 1952-1962
- India—Mahindra & Mahindra Limited 1960s-current
- Japan—Mitsubishi Jeeps 1953-1998
- Korea—Asia Motors, Ltd and SsangYong Motor Company (does not use Jeep name) 1980s-current
- Mexico—VAM Jeeps 1946-1987
- Netherlands—Nederlandse Kaiser-Frazer 1954-1990s
- Spain—VIASA, later sold to Nissan 1960-1990s
- Turkey—Tuzla 1954-1970s
- Clinton A. Saunders and Joseph W. Blackwell, Words of the Fighting Forces (1942).
- Jeeps around the world Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- IKA Jeeps in Argentina Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- History of Jeeps in Australia March 2, 2019.
- CJ-3Bs Built in Belgium Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in Brazil. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Kaiser Jeep in Windsor, Canada, 1959-69. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Colombia Loves Willys Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in France. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in India: Mahindra & Mahindra Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Israel Jeeps Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in Italy. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Mitsubishi Jeeps in Japan Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in South Korea Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- VAM Jeeps in Mexico Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jan Hogendoorn and Derek Redmond, NEKAF Jeeps in the Netherlands. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeepneys of the Philippines. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Los Jeeps in Spain. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Review of The Jeep in Sweden by Stig Edqvist Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Tuzla Jeeps in Turkey. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Jeeps in Venezuela Retrieved March 2, 2019.
- Allen, Jim. Jeep. Osceola, WI: MBI Pub. Co., 2001. ISBN 978-0760307977
- Foster, Patrick. Standard Catalog of Jeep, 1940-2003. Iola, WI.: Krause Pub., 2003. ISBN 978-0873495226
- King, Granville and Willie Worthy. The Jeep Bible 1941-1986, CJ History, Repair, Tuneup, Mods: Written Personally for the Jeep Cult! Holtville, CA: Quellen, 2004. ISBN 978-0961847395
- Mann, Jim. Beijing Jeep the Short, Unhappy Romance of American Business in China. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989. ISBN 978-0671620271
- Statham, Steve. Jeep Color History. Osceola, WI: MBI Pub., 1999. ISBN 978-0760306369
All links retrieved March 1, 2019.
- Jeep Brand Official Web Site
- Jeep Australia Official Web Site
- Jeep Canada Official Web Site
- Jeep Brand Official UK Web Site
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